Source: adapted from Brooks M.R. and Pallis A.A. (2012). Port Governance. In: Talley W.K. (ed.). Maritime Economics – A Blackwell Companion. Blackwell, 232-267.
Α port governance model seeking to optimize the management, operations, and economic development prospects of the port while considering social and cultural variables might be achieved by thinking in concentric circles about those who need to be engaged in a multi-modal perspective. The logistics integration in ports, the regionalization of port functions, as well as the importance of inland freight distribution have a major impact on port governance. This is because a mix of stakeholder management approaches emerges as the scope of coordination beyond price between actors involved is essential, and opportunistic behavior could limit trust and infrastructure for solving collective action problems. Within such a multi-modal perspective, the notion of port governance includes spatial-jurisdictional scales, stakeholder relations (internal, external, public policy, and community), and logistical capabilities.