Source: adapted from Brooks M.R., McCalla, R., Pallis A.A., and van der Lugt L. (2010). Cooperation and Coordination in Strategic Port Management: The Case of Atlantic Canada’s Ports. Canadian Journal of Transportation, 4(1), 29-42.
There are two types of competitive strategies for ports: (1) the concept of cooperation between different ports and (2) the concept of improving the integration and coordination in hinterland transport networks. Ports may cooperate to serve shippers and shipping lines, or a port may coordinate with other port services, logistics providers, and carriers, aiming to provide better services in linking overseas forelands with inland destinations.