Source: Adapted from Pallis A.A. and Kladaki P. (2019). Inter–organisational relationships of European port management entities. Ιn: Panayides P.M. (ed): Routledge Handbook In Maritime Management, 283-298, London: Routledge.
Collaborative efforts between non-proximate ports are scattered across continents and take on different types of relationship formats. These range from collaborations (formalized via mutually signed agreements or not), Joint Ventures/investments, and port alliances with the signing of Memorandum of Understanding (MoU), to consultancy services, where one of the port authorities involved acts as the consultant.
Several port authorities have created subsidiary companies that develop such partnerships. The corporatized Port of Rotterdam Authority established the Port of Rotterdam International (PORint) department to promote trade by developing a global port network. In a similar pattern, Port of Antwerp International is an investment subsidiary of the Port of Antwerp Authority. The Port of Amsterdam has also been involved in a collaboration.