Source: adapted from P. Verhoeven (2011) European Port Governance, European Seaports Organization (ESPO), Brussels.
The great majority of European port authorities are publicly owned, like in much of the rest of the world. Central governments and municipalities are the two main types of ownership. Private ownership is limited and can include industrial companies, transport companies (e.g. terminal operators) or financial holdings. The “other” category includes trust ownership, private persons, or cooperatives.