There is a substantial geographical diversity of terminal assets among two groups; the four major holdings (HPH, PSA, DPW and APM) and the smaller terminal operators.
DP World and APM Terminals have the most diversified portfolio of terminals in terms of geographical spread and can thus be considered the most “global” of the global terminal operators. However, a level of regional orientation is already evident. APM Terminals does not have a presence in Australia, while DP World has only a very small presence in North America (CenTerm in Vancouver). PSA has no direct presence in North America, but has Latin American assets, as well as HPH.
The strong global character of the largest operators is in contrast with the regional orientation of smaller holding companies. Stevedores tend to have a much higher regional orientation than terminal operators controlled by shipping companies. Three stevedores in particular, Ports America, Eurogate and Shanghai International Port Group, are strictly regional operators. Shipping companies such as Cosco, Hanjin and CMA-CGM are embarking into a substantial transnational strategy, mostly by securing concessions at smaller terminals.