Cumulative Number of Automated Terminals and Automated Surface

Cumulative Number of Automated Terminals and Automated Surface

Source: Adapted from Drewry shipping consultants and Port Equipment Manufacturers Association.

Up to the late 2000s, only a few terminals implemented automation strategies since they involved unproven technologies. Then, from the early 2010s, the number of automated terminals increased rapidly as equipment was standardized and as automation costs declined.