Source: adapted from Notteboom, T. (2018) The impact of changing market requirements on dock labour employment systems in northwest European seaports, International Journal of Shipping and Transport Logistics (IJSTL), 10(4), 429-454 https://doi.org/10.1504/IJSTL.2018.093457
The figure presents a conceptual framework to capture the linkages between the key requirements of market actors and the resulting impact on demands in terms of dock labor performance. Shipping companies, third-party logistics service providers, and shippers impose certain logistics requirements on ports and terminals based on the characteristics and the needs of supply chains. Terminals operators are challenged to meet these market requirements if they want to attract cargo and ships. The production factor dock labor and the associated dock labor deployment systems and arrangements play a role in meeting market requirements.